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Risk of cancer with fibroids

Updated: 4 days ago

Risk of cancer with fibroids

Fibroids, medically termed as uterine leiomyomas, are benign tumours predominantly found in the muscle tissue of the uterus. They represent one of the most common noncancerous tumours affecting women during their reproductive years. Despite their prevalence, the concern about the transformation of fibroids into cancerous growths remains a topic of considerable anxiety for many.

The intrinsic nature of fibroids is benign, and the overwhelming majority remain so throughout a woman’s life. The risk of a fibroid becoming cancerous, known as leiomyosarcoma, is exceedingly rare. Research indicates that the incidence of such a transformation is as low as less than 0.1%. This rarity highlights the fact that while fibroids are a significant concern due to their impact on women's health and quality of life, their potential for malignancy is minimal.

In the context of the UK's healthcare system, the approach to managing and monitoring fibroids is grounded in evidence-based practices. With a focus on minimising risk and maximising patient well-being, healthcare providers emphasise regular monitoring and evaluation. This ensures that any changes in the size, number, or symptoms associated with fibroids are closely observed, allowing for timely intervention should any concerns arise.

Understanding the risk of cancer with fibroids involves not just recognising the low probability of malignant transformation but also appreciating the comprehensive care framework within which fibroids are managed. For women in the UK, this means timely access to advanced diagnostic tools, a range of treatment options, and the support of specialists who are equipped to offer personalised care tailored to each individual's needs and circumstances.

As we delve deeper into the specifics of detection, monitoring, and the impact of lifestyle factors on fibroids and their associated risks, it becomes clear that the journey through understanding and managing fibroids is one marked by informed decision-making and supportive care. The goal remains not only to address the fibroids themselves but also to alleviate concerns about their potential to impact cancer risk, ensuring that women are empowered with knowledge and options for their health and wellbeing.

What are the chances of fibroids turning into cancer?

The topic of fibroids and their potential to turn into cancer is one that frequently concerns patients. Uterine fibroids are, by their nature, benign tumours that arise from the muscular tissue of the uterus. These growths are very common, affecting a significant proportion of women at some point during their reproductive years. Despite their prevalence, the transformation of fibroids into cancerous tumours is exceedingly rare, a fact that offers reassurance to many.

Scientific research and clinical evidence consistently show that the likelihood of fibroids becoming malignant is exceptionally low. Studies have demonstrated that the incidence rate of leiomyosarcoma in patients with fibroids is less than 0.1% (Source, Source). This statistic is important for patients and healthcare providers alike, as it underscores the importance of not letting the fear of cancer overshadow the management and treatment of fibroids.

In the United Kingdom, the approach to fibroid management integrates this understanding, ensuring that patients are well-informed about the actual risks. Healthcare professionals emphasise that while regular monitoring and checkups are essential for managing fibroids effectively, the direct correlation between fibroids and an increased risk of cancer is minimal. This perspective is grounded in a wealth of clinical experience and supported by ongoing research into uterine fibroids and their behaviour.

For patients, understanding these odds is pivotal. It provides a foundation of knowledge that can alleviate anxiety and empower informed discussions about treatment options. The emphasis remains on individualised care, recognising that each patient's experience with fibroids is unique. By focusing on personalised treatment plans, healthcare providers aim to address the symptoms and impact of fibroids on a case by case basis, all while reassuring patients about the minimal risk of cancer transformation.

This insight into the chances of fibroids turning into cancer highlights a key message: while vigilance and regular medical consultation are imperative, the fear of cancer should not dominate the narrative of fibroid management. Instead, the focus is on quality of life, symptom relief, and informed choice, ensuring that women can navigate their health journey with confidence and support.

How are fibroids detected and monitored for cancer risk in the UK?

In the United Kingdom, the detection and monitoring of fibroids, particularly with an eye towards assessing any cancer risk, are carried out through a combination of clinical evaluation and advanced diagnostic techniques. This approach is designed to ensure accurate diagnosis, assess the size and growth of fibroids, and monitor for any signs that could suggest a rare transformation into a malignant form.

The initial step in detecting fibroids usually involves a detailed medical history, focusing on any exaggerated symptoms of pelvic pain, abdominal bloating or abnormal uterine bleeding that have been noticed by the patient, especially if experienced over a relatively short period of time (3 months). Then a detailed pelvic examination, where a healthcare professional palpates the uterus to identify any irregularities in its shape or size that might suggest the presence of fibroids. If fibroids are suspected, further diagnostic tests are recommended to confirm their presence, understand their characteristics, and formulate an effective management plan.

Ultrasound scanning

Ultrasound scans are the most common diagnostic tool used to visualise fibroids. This non-invasive technique uses sound waves to create images of the uterus, allowing healthcare providers to see and measure fibroids. The UK's National Health Service (NHS) offers both abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound scans, with the latter providing a closer and more detailed view of the uterus, making it particularly effective in identifying fibroids.

MRI scanning

For a more comprehensive assessment, particularly in cases where fibroids are difficult to characterise with ultrasound alone, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans can be utilised. MRI scans offer more detailed images of the uterus and pelvic area, helping to determine the number, size, and location of fibroids, and importantly, to differentiate fibroids from other types of growths that could be malignant.

Regular monitoring

Once fibroids are diagnosed, regular monitoring is important, especially for women who experience symptoms or have fibroids that are growing. The frequency and type of monitoring depend on the individual case, including the size of the fibroids, symptoms, and any changes over time. Monitoring typically involves repeat ultrasound scans and clinical evaluations to assess the growth of fibroids and their impact on health and quality of life.

Assessing cancer risk

Although the risk of fibroids turning cancerous is extremely low, healthcare providers remain vigilant. Any rapid growth of fibroids, especially postmenopause, may warrant further investigation to rule out sarcoma, a rare type of cancer that can initially mimic the presentation of fast-growing fibroids. In such cases, additional diagnostic tests, including biopsy or surgical removal and histopathological examination of the tissue, may be recommended.

Here at the Rylon Clinic we are proud to offer all the above services at a single location as part of our ‘One Stop Gynaecology Clinic’. This helps to ensure rapid assessment, diagnostics and treatments all under a single clinic led by our clinical lead and Director Mr Osama Naji.

What are the latest treatment options for fibroids in the UK, and do they reduce cancer risk?

In the UK, the approach to treating fibroids is multifaceted, incorporating a range of options from conservative management to advanced surgical interventions. The choice of treatment is highly individualised, taking into account factors such as the size and location of the fibroids, the severity of symptoms, the patient's desire for future fertility, and overall health considerations. While the primary aim of fibroid treatment is to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life, it's important to note that since fibroids are benign, the treatments themselves do not specifically address cancer risk, but rather focus on managing the fibroids effectively.


For women experiencing mild symptoms, medication may be the first line of treatment. This can include:

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists: These drugs can temporarily shrink fibroids by blocking the production of oestrogen and progesterone, putting the body in a menopause-like state. Due to potential side effects, their use is generally limited to a short term basis, often before surgery to reduce fibroid size and blood loss.

Tranexamic acid: This medication helps reduce heavy menstrual bleeding associated with fibroids.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Although NSAIDs don't shrink fibroids, they can help alleviate pain related to fibroids.

Minimally invasive procedures

Advancements in medical technology have led to the development of minimally invasive procedures that offer effective treatment with less recovery time compared to traditional surgery. These include:

Uterine Artery Embolisation (UAE): A radiological procedure that cuts off the blood supply to fibroids, causing them to shrink and die. UAE is particularly suitable for women who wish to avoid surgery, not medically fit for surgery or those with multiple large fibroids.

Myomectomy: A surgical procedure to remove fibroids while preserving the uterus, making it a preferred option for women looking to maintain fertility.

Surgical options

In cases where fibroids are large, symptoms are severe, or other treatments have been ineffective, more invasive surgery may be necessary:

Hysterectomy: The surgical removal of the uterus, which is a definitive treatment for fibroids. This procedure is typically considered when other treatments have failed, fibroids that are very large, or the woman does not wish to preserve her fertility.

It's important to discuss all available treatment options with a healthcare provider, who can offer guidance based on the latest research and clinical guidelines. The comprehensive approach to fibroid treatment in the UK ensures that women have access to a range of options tailored to their specific needs and circumstances.

In terms of reducing cancer risk, it's important to understand that since fibroids are benign, the treatments are not designed to reduce cancer risk but to manage the fibroids themselves. Regular monitoring and appropriate treatment of fibroids contribute to overall uterine health, which can be reassuring for women concerned about the potential for cancer.

How do lifestyle factors influence the risk of cancer with fibroids?

The intersection of lifestyle factors and the risk of developing cancer in the context of uterine fibroids is an area of growing interest and research. While fibroids themselves are benign and the direct risk of them turning into cancer is extremely low, understanding how lifestyle choices can impact overall uterine health and potentially influence fibroid growth and symptom severity is important for comprehensive care.

Diet and nutrition

Emerging evidence suggests that diet may play a role in fibroid risk and progression. A diet high in red meat and low in green vegetables, fruit, and dairy has been associated with an increased risk of developing fibroids. Conversely, diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains might not only help prevent fibroids but could also aid in managing symptoms in those already diagnosed. While no direct link has been established between diet and fibroids related cancer risk, a healthy diet can support overall wellbeing and may contribute to a lower risk of various types of cancers.

Physical activity

Regular physical activity is beneficial for general health and may help reduce the risk of developing fibroids. Exercise can help maintain a healthy weight, which is important because obesity is a known risk factor for fibroids. While the relationship between exercise and fibroid cancer risk is not direct, maintaining a healthy lifestyle through regular physical activity supports overall reproductive health and may reduce the risk of various health conditions, including some cancers.

Body weight

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing fibroids. Adipose tissue, or body fat, produces excess oestrogen, a hormone that can stimulate fibroid growth. Managing body weight through diet and exercise can therefore play a role in managing fibroid symptoms and potentially reducing the number and size of fibroids. While weight management does not directly influence the cancer risk associated with fibroids, it is an important component of overall health management, including cancer prevention strategies.


Smoking has been linked to an increased risk of developing fibroids. The toxins found in cigarettes may affect hormone levels and contribute to the growth of fibroids. Quitting smoking can have numerous health benefits, including potentially reducing the risk of fibroids and improving overall uterine health. While smoking cessation is universally recommended for cancer prevention, its role in directly reducing fibroid-related cancer risk is part of the broader benefit of eliminating smoking-related health risks.

Are there specific symptoms that indicate a fibroid may be cancerous?

When discussing uterine fibroids, a common concern is whether there are specific symptoms or signs that could indicate a transition from benign growth to a cancerous condition, such as leiomyosarcoma. It is critical to understand that such cases are exceedingly rare, but being informed about potential warning signs can help ensure timely consultation with healthcare professionals. There are certain symptoms and scenarios where medical advice should be promptly sought:

Rapid growth

Fibroids that increase in size rapidly over a short period could be a cause for further investigation. While growth is common for fibroids, especially during times of hormonal change such as pregnancy, an unusual acceleration in size warrants a detailed evaluation.

Postmenopausal development

The development of new fibroids or significant growth of existing ones postmenopause should be closely monitored. After menopause, the body produces less oestrogen, a hormone that can stimulate fibroid growth. Any new growth during this time is unusual and should be assessed by a healthcare professional.

Severe pain

While fibroids can cause discomfort or pain, especially during menstrual periods, sudden, severe, and persistent pain may indicate complications such as a twisted fibroid or degeneration, which is when a fibroid outgrows its blood supply and causes acute pain. While not necessarily indicative of cancer, such symptoms require immediate medical attention.

Unusual bleeding

Heavy menstrual bleeding is a common symptom of fibroids, but postmenopausal bleeding or significant changes in menstrual patterns should be evaluated. Though often related to benign conditions, any unusual bleeding patterns warrant a thorough investigation to rule out more serious causes, including cancer.

It is important to note that the presence of these symptoms alone does not confirm a fibroid has become cancerous. Comprehensive diagnostic procedures, including imaging tests and, in some cases, biopsy or surgical removal and pathological examination, are necessary to make an accurate diagnosis.

The UK healthcare system provides access to a range of diagnostic services and treatments, ensuring that women experiencing any concerning symptoms can receive the care and reassurance they need. Maintaining regular checkups and discussing any changes or symptoms with a healthcare provider is key to managing fibroid related health effectively.

What is the role of advanced gynaecology scanning in assessing the risk of cancer in fibroids?

Advanced gynaecology scanning plays a pivotal role in the diagnostic process of uterine fibroids, providing valuable insights that guide both the assessment of cancer risk and the determination of appropriate treatment strategies. In the UK, healthcare providers leverage a variety of sophisticated imaging technologies to evaluate fibroids accurately, distinguish between benign and potentially malignant growths, and monitor fibroid development over time.

Ultrasound technology

Ultrasound remains the cornerstone of fibroid imaging, offering a noninvasive, accessible, and cost effective method for initial assessment. High resolution transvaginal ultrasound, in particular, provides detailed images of the uterine cavity and the fibroids, enabling the evaluation of their size, number, and location. While ultrasound is highly effective for identifying fibroids, its ability to definitively distinguish benign fibroids from malignant tumours requires experienced operators with specific skills in fibroid mapping and characteristics.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

MRI is utilised when a more detailed examination is required, particularly in complex cases or when the differentiation between a fibroid and other types of growths is challenging. MRI offers exceptional contrast resolution and multiplanar imaging capabilities, making it highly effective in mapping and characterising fibroids. It can provide important information on the size, number, location, and composition of fibroids, and is particularly useful in presurgical planning. Furthermore, MRI can help identify characteristics suggestive of malignancy, such as irregular borders or unusual signal intensity, although it cannot conclusively diagnose cancer.

Saline infusion sonography (SIS)

Saline infusion sonography enhances traditional ultrasound by injecting a saline solution into the uterine cavity, expanding it and providing a clearer view of the uterine walls and any abnormalities. This technique is particularly useful for assessing the endometrial cavity and distinguishing submucosal fibroids from polyps, which can have different implications for treatment and risk assessment.


While not a scanning technique per se, hysteroscopy allows direct visual inspection of the uterine cavity and can be used in conjunction with imaging studies for a comprehensive evaluation. It involves inserting a thin, lighted scope through the vagina and cervix into the uterus, providing high-definition images of the uterine interior. This method can be particularly helpful in assessing the risk of malignancy in cases where endometrial involvement is suspected.

Advanced gynaecology scanning is integral to the management of fibroids, offering critical insights that inform both the immediate treatment plan and ongoing monitoring strategy. By accurately characterising fibroids and providing detailed information about their behaviour and development, these technologies play a key role in ensuring that care is appropriately tailored to each patient's needs, optimising outcomes while minimising unnecessary interventions.

Understanding sarcoma in the context of fibroids

While the focus of our guide has been on the benign nature of fibroids and their management, it is crucial to address the rare but serious concern of sarcoma, specifically leiomyosarcoma, which can occasionally arise in the uterus. Leiomyosarcoma is a type of uterine cancer that originates in the smooth muscle tissue of the uterus, the same tissue from which fibroids develop. However, it's important to distinguish between these two conditions, as they are fundamentally different in nature and risk.

What is Leiomyosarcoma?

Leiomyosarcoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that affects the smooth muscle cells in the uterus. Unlike fibroids, which are benign and often asymptomatic or associated with non-life-threatening symptoms, leiomyosarcoma is malignant and can pose significant health risks if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

Differentiating between fibroids and sarcoma

The differentiation between fibroids and leiomyosarcoma can be challenging, as they share similar initial symptoms, such as abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, and an enlarged uterus. However, certain characteristics and diagnostic findings may suggest the presence of sarcoma over benign fibroids:

Rapid growth: Leiomyosarcomas tend to grow more quickly than fibroids, especially in postmenopausal women.

Imaging characteristics: Advanced imaging techniques, such as MRI, can sometimes reveal features suggestive of malignancy, including irregular borders and heterogeneous texture.

Histopathological examination: The definitive diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma is made through a biopsy or surgical removal and subsequent microscopic examination of the tissue, which can identify cancerous cells.

Risk factors and incidence

Leiomyosarcoma is exceedingly rare, with studies indicating that the risk of a fibroid being a leiomyosarcoma is less than 0.1%. Certain factors may increase the risk, including postmenopausal status and a history of pelvic radiation therapy. However, the overall likelihood of fibroids transforming into leiomyosarcoma remains low.

Treatment and management

The treatment for leiomyosarcoma typically involves surgery to remove the cancerous tissue, which may include a hysterectomy. In some cases, additional treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be recommended depending on the stage and spread of the cancer. Early detection and treatment are critical for improving outcomes in patients with leiomyosarcoma.

While the risk of sarcoma in the context of fibroids is minimal, awareness and understanding of this potential complication are essential for comprehensive care. Our clinic is equipped with the expertise and advanced diagnostic tools necessary to differentiate between benign fibroids and potential malignancies, ensuring that our patients receive accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatment plans. By maintaining a vigilant approach to fibroid management, we aim to address all aspects of uterine health, providing peace of mind and support to those we serve.


Understanding the nuances of fibroid management, particularly in assessing their risk of becoming cancerous, is essential for providing comprehensive care. The advancements in gynaecological scanning and diagnostic technologies have significantly enhanced our ability to evaluate, monitor, and treat fibroids effectively, offering women peace of mind and tailored treatment options. These technological advancements, coupled with a deep understanding of the factors influencing fibroid growth and symptomatology, enable healthcare providers to offer care that is both proactive and responsive to the unique needs of each patient.

For a newly established private gynaecology clinic in the heart of central London, such as ours, leveraging these advanced diagnostic tools is not just about offering state-of-the-art treatments; it's about fulfilling a broader commitment to educational goals and excellent clinical care. Mr Naji, our founder, based at the prestigious Guy's and St Thomas' NHS foundations which underscores our clinic's values as a one-stop gynaecology clinic offering advanced scanning and bilingual support.

By focusing on the latest treatment options for fibroids in the UK and understanding the role of lifestyle factors and symptoms in fibroid management, our clinic is dedicated to reducing the anxiety associated with fibroid diagnosis and treatment. Our goal is to establish a clinic that not only meets the immediate health needs of our patients but also educates and empowers them to make informed decisions about their health. In doing so, we aim to become a trusted and successful clinic that makes a significant impact on the well-being of our patients.

We invite you to explore our services further and take the first step towards comprehensive gynecologic care by booking an appointment online. Together, we can navigate the complexities of fibroid management and work towards a healthier, more informed future.

Author: Mr Osama Naji

Mr Naji offers a “one-stop” gynaecology clinic for instant detection of various gynaecological cancers as well as providing all the diagnostic and treatment services needed under one roof.

Mr Naji provides advanced gynaecology scanning which is essential when conducting any gynaecology consultation, he is bilingual in English and Arabic and has an NHS base at the highly reputable Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital in London.

He is passionate about raising awareness of various subtle signs and symptoms of gynaecological conditions that are often overlooked by patients.

You can read more about Mr Naji on his about page here.


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